History of Mergers and Acquisitions

In today’s business, mergers and acquisitions are regular occurrences. In fact, it happens so often that many consumers can’t keep up with the new company names or products. To continue thriving in our economy, companies have to grow and evolve, and that sometimes means the combination of two companies will work better for the general public and the companies involved. There are two general types of mergers and acquisitions. The first is the horizontal merger, and the other is the vertical merger. A horizontal merger is two very similar companies joining together to work as one. An example of this would be two telecommunications companies joining forces to offer similar services after the merger. While a horizontal merger is perfectly acceptable, there are many who frown on it because it can offer fewer competitors if they are located in the same market areas. When two companies merge to form one, consumers often find they no longer have a choice between two companies and must, instead, deal only with the one new company. Without the healthy competition between two companies, customer service may decline while prices skyrocket. Essentially, a monopoly is created and consumers may suffer.

A vertical merger happens when a client and a company merge. An example of this might be when a hot dog company merges with a hot dog bun company. Because both products are still offered and they work together, consumers get the products they need. A vertical merger does not eliminate the competition for a particular company and is therefore often seen as a much more welcome combination.

Mergers and acquisitions have been a part of business for hundreds of years, though they weren’t as prevalent as they are today. The first significant occurrence of mergers happened in the late 1800s and early 1900s, though the concept wasn’t new even then. Since that large wave of mergers and acquisitions, which has become known as the Great Merger Movement, there have been six more significant waves of merger and acquisitions. In most cases, the mergers are peaceful and welcome on the part of both companies involved. The 1990s saw several hostile takeovers, however. The years since 2000 have seen many international mergers and acquisitions, and this is changing the face of business. There is no doubt that these new overseas mergers and acquisitions will continue to alter the way we do business, and chances are that company takeovers and fusions will shape the global economy for several years to come.

Luxurious Hotels in Columbus

Columbus is located in Ohio, one of the largest cities named after the famous Christopher Columbus. This city owns the Ohio State University, the largest in the US. It has concluded in one of the magazines to be the rising "global city," being the 8th best city to live in. The residents are called Columbusites.

The increasing population of tourists and residents brought rise to many hotels in the vicinity. Listed here are some of the commendable accommodations.

Doubletree Guest Suites Columbus
Doubletree Guest Suites is an all-suite hotel conveniently located in the downtown of Columbus. It overlooks the beautiful Scioto River. It is also a 15-minute drive from the Port Columbus International Airport, accessible to Huntington Bank Center, Riffe State Office Tower through paved roads, and many other local landmarks and business offices.

It is very ideal to those people traveling on business. The hotel caters on short and extended stays, having comfortable meeting rooms and banquet spaces for business and other social gatherings. It also provides services for business like photocopying, facsimile machines and audiovisual equipment. Guests are warmly welcomed upon checking in. The staff gives out chocolate chip cookies as their trademark.

This hotel features plenty of recreational activities for guests. Some famous local attractions to visit are the Columbus Art Museum, Blue Jackets Hockey, Clippers Stadium, Convention Center, Crew Soccer Stadium, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, Ohio State Fairgrounds, and the Nationwide Arena.

Doubletree features homely and comfortable double-room suites. Guests can also choose the penthouse bi-level suites for the ultimate downtown experience, providing the lovely views of the river. All of their guestrooms are spacious and are complete with amenities that can guarantee a memorable stay, either short or a long one in Columbus.

Complimentary bottled water, coffee / tea maker, and complimentary bottled water are provided for your convenience. The amenities and amenities at this hotel include coffee / tea makers, complimentary bottled water, and coffee / tea makers. The hotel takes pride of its friendly and courteous staff. They also offer laundry and valet service. They have venues for special occasions like a business center and comfortable meeting rooms. The hotel also provides wireless Internet connection. It is a pet-friendly hotel, and is wheelchair accessible.

You can dine in the Caucus Room Restaurant inside. It serves delectable American dishes everyday. Guests can also request for a room service.

Lofts Hotel and Suites
This luxurious hotel offers distinct and unique features. It is designed in a clean and contemporary style, contrasting yet blending to the strong and majestic features of the building. It elucidates a sense of rich history and beauty.

It is located near many local tourist attractions. Worth seeing are the Arena District, The Arena Grand Theater, Short North, Columbus Art Scene, German Village, Ohio State Football and Athletics, and the Memorial Golf Tournament.

Lofts Hotel features large rooms with floor to ceiling windows with amenities such as high-speed Internet access, garden tub suites (for booking), Frette linens, concierge service, Frette terry robes, Aveda products that are all-natural, coffee service (in -room gourmet), two-line telephone, and fitness facilities.

Meeting rooms are spacious for movement and can be designed according to one's preferences. Loft's Hotel's staff are ready to assist to make any event a big success. This hotel also caters to wedding planners. Help them to assist is their sister's property, The Crowne Plaza in planning with their professional staff.

The hotel offers several packages. The Andy Warhol Exhibit Package for Two features films, paintings, videos, drawings, and other arts for exhibit. The Knock-out Boxing Wellness Package is inclusive of an overnight accommodation in one of the splendid rooms. The hotel offers a free DVD "Rocky" movie, boxing workouts, Swedish massage after the boxing workout.

The Soho Package covers overnight accommodations, breakfast for two, champagne, chocolates, rose petals and valet parking. The Boulevard Getaway includes overnight accommodations, champagne and chocolates, Cameron Mitchell Gift certificate worth $ 50, rose petal turndown, breakfast for two, and valet parking.

Other popular packages here are the 5th Avenue Package, Chocolate Lovers Package, Do the District Getaway, Hockey Getaway, Art-A-Go-Go, and Zoo-A-Go-Go.

The Ethical Advantages of Vegan Shoes

Everywhere we look we're seeing and hearing about different ways to help keep our environment green from building homes and using energy-efficient appliances right down to the clothes we're choosing to buy and wear. Of particular interest to many are vegan shoes. Vegan shoes are designed and created in a way that make them more sustainable and, therefore, directing us towards a greener future. One company calls their process for making vegan shoes "Green Toe". By using the most innovative construction and materials, they make their vegan shoes in a way that they will last a long time, thus eliminating the need for new shoes. Not only are these vegan shoes durable, but they are also extremely comfortable.

One of the first steps we, as a society, have taken in our mission to wear eco-friendly shoes such as vegan shoes is to eliminate a wardrobe filled with leather shoes, boots or handbags. With the large effort shoe manufacturers have made to give us non-leather shoes and other synthetic shoes and accessories, it's never been easier to live a vegetarian lifestyle with the wide choice of vegan shoes now becoming available. Vegetarian products like vegan shoes, handbags and accessories have advanced a lot in recent years. With the many advances made in the production and manufacture of synthetic products, the non-leather goods we buy are almost identical and can hardly be told apart from their genuine counterparts.

There are many products that previously went into the manufacture of shoes that not only hurt the environment but were not comfortable on the foot, with leather being just one of them- in fact, it was a major component. Now, instead of using leather, pvc or vinyl in the manufacture of shoes, the new vegan shoes are made of a polyurethane synthetic microfiber.

Other materials that are used in vegan shoes include cork, latex or hemp. Hemp is easy to obtain, does not harm the environment and is biodegradable. We'll be seeing hemp used in more and more eco-friendly products for your home and daily living. Another major component in the manufacture of shoes is rubber. As a way to conserve the environment while cutting back on waste, many manufacturers of shoes are using recycled car tires and bicycle tires for the soles and heels of the shoes.

With the many advances in products and materials used for eco-friendly clothing, vegan shoes and green products, it is easier every day for us to help keep the environment green and healthy.

If you want to wear shoes that are animal friendly, you'll need vegan shoes to fit your needs.

Important Dates Concerning the Public Domain

The following dates apply to the USA only. We're concentrating on the USA as this has the most creative works available in the Public Domain. We'll come to the UK later on.

• DECEMBER 31st 1922

• 1st JANUARY 1923 – 31st DECEMBER 1963

• IMPORTANT NUMBERS: 28, 67 (or 95)

Anything published in the USA before 1923 ie up to December. 31st 1922, is in the public domain – period! Whatever it is, be it book, photo, painting, music * it does not matter – it's in the Public Domain which means you can do whatever you want with it.

* Actually only sheet music or song lyrics can be in the Public Domain in the USA – ALL music in the form of sound recordings are under copyright until at least 2067. However there is a way to download certain recordings and we'll cover those in another post which will also cover where to find them.

31st Jan. 1923 – 31st Dec. 1963 – Anything published between these two dates automatically came with a 28 year copyright. However if the copyright was NOT renewed in the 28th year then the work fell into the Public Domain. If it was renewed then the copyright extended for another 67 years or 95 years from first being published.

Example: If a work was published in 1930 and the copyright was renewed in 1958 then the copyright would not run out until 2025 (1958 + 67 years = 2025) The other calculation is to add 95 onto the year of publication which is in this case means 1930 + 95 = 2025. It just depends on whichever method you feel comfortable with.

Appropriately between 85% – 93% of all creative works published between these two dates NEVER had the copyright renewed. This means there is a vast ocean of in the available material for you to access and use in whichever way you want.

What about works published from 1964 onwards you might ask? Well from 1964 – 1977 copyright is automatically 95 years from date of publication which means it'll be 2059 before any of that material is in the Public Domain so it really is not relevant if, like me, you're in your 50's already !

This also applies to works published from 1978 onwards despite the length of time of copyright varies between 70 – 120 years or 75 years after the death of the author / creator. Again this is irrelevant for our purposes.

IMPORTANT – In the UK creative works have a copyright until the end of the 70th year after the death of the author / creator. Note that it's the end of the 70th year – not the 70th anniversary of the author's death. So if the author died in JUNE 1930 their work would not be in the Public Domain in the UK until the 1st January 2001

Now it's also important to note that even if the work was published and in the Public Domain in one country it does not mean it's in the Public Domain in another. A good example here is PETER PAN written by JM Barrie.

This was written in 1920 and published in the UK then. It was also published in the USA in 1922 so technically it was in the Public Domain in the USA but NOT in the UK as the author was still alive! In fact he did not die until 1937 so Peter Pan would not normally come into the public domain in the UK until 2008.

However an amendment to the 1988 Copyright Designs and Patents Act in the UK was passed to allow the copyright for Peter Pan to run indefinitely in the UK with all royalties being associated to the trustees of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London, for as long as the hospital exists.

The book could have been sold by anyone if they stayed in the USA without fear of violation of copyright but not so in the UK.

So you now know what dates to look for when searching for a product that's in the Public Domain. They are very important so keep them close for reference.

It's also important to note that there is a lot of information published that does not have copyright. This applications to government publications as these are produced for the general public and paid for out of public funds and so can be used by the general public in any legal way.

There are easy ways to find out if a product is in the Public Domain, especially books which are the most popular product searched for, but we'll talk about those in another post.